Monday, 30 September 2013

Research Topic 2

Research Topic 2;
One of the topics that I am going to research for my summer brief is printed cards, I have chosen this because I find them really interesting. A greeting card is an illustrated, folded card featuring an expression of friendship or other sentiment. Although greeting cards are usually given on special occasions such as birthdays, Christmas or other holidays, they are also sent to convey thanks or express other feeling. Greeting cards, usually packaged with an envelope, come in a variety of styles and designs, which is why I find them so interesting. There are both mass-produced as well as handmade versions that are distributed by hundreds of companies large and small. I prefer handmade and screen printed cards as I think that they are more personal than the generic greeting cards, and are most of the time designed better, and usually more expensive than others.
"Greeting cards help fulfill an enduring need people have to connect with others. People say there's something special about finding "just the right card" – one they know will get a reaction from the person who receives it. They say giving cards is affirming. It feels good to send them, and it feels good to receive them." Source

Examples of cards I like;
I decided to start my research by looking through design blogs and websites to find some examples of greeting cards I like.

I found this image on google, I really like it because of the use of colour, using only one colour with different opacity's gives more detail to the design without making it look tacky or overly complicated. The colours used are also appropriate to the cards use, and the target audience for the cards. These card could be screen printed or digitally printed, this would work really well as a screen print, and is something I want to experiment with in the second year.

I found one of these images which led me to a website where there was more versions of the same style cards. I have found that there is a lot of bikes and vehicles that have been printed onto cards, I think that they work really well, it is a way to show off the detail you can get with a screen print. This is what I like so much in these screen printed greeting cards, the fact that you can see how much detail has gone into each one, just by using different opacity's of the same colour.

I went onto a website called ohsobeautifulpaper, and found that it was full of greeting card designs, posters, and vouchers. They are all completely different styles but that is because they are all for different audiences.
These vouchers and greeting cards are aesthetically pleasing, although they are purely type based cards, I think that they work really well for what the are used for, and each have specific target audiences that will enjoy them.
These cards are very different to the others on this website, they are handmade, and are very simply and effective. The target audience for these cards are very clear because of the colour of the bows, together they look like they should be for a congratulations for a new baby girl or boy, but because there is not type on them, it can be used for many different occasions.

This image is a really good example of the kind of design I want to do in my second year, it is simple yet really well produced. These cards have been screen printed onto two different stocks, and it looks really effective, this is because of the colours used. These greeting cards are going to be a big influence on my design this year as I am wanting to produce some cards that work as well as these do, also I want to experiment with more screen prints, as it is my favourite production method.

This is another ood example of what I am wanting to do in the second year, but not as much for the illustration on the front, but I like the use of colours on different coloured stocks.

Information about greeting cards;
A greeting card is an illustrated, folded card featuring an expression of friendship or other sentiment. Although greeting cards are usually given on special occasions such as birthdays, Christmas or other holidays, they are also sent to convey thanks or express other feeling. Greeting cards, usually packaged with an envelope, come in a variety of styles. There are both mass-produced as well as handmade versions that are distributed by hundreds of companies large and small. While typically inexpensive, more elaborate cards with die-cuts or glued-on decorations may be more expensive.
Hallmark Cards and American Greetings are the largest producers of greeting cards in the world. In the United Kingdom, it is estimated that one billion pounds are spent on greeting cards every year, with the average person sending 55 cards per year.
In western countries and increasingly in other societies, many people traditionally mail seasonally themed cards to their friends and relatives in December. Many service businesses also send cards to their customers in this season, usually with a universally acceptable non-religious message such as "happy holidays" or "seasons's greetings".
The Greeting Card Association is an international trade organization representing the interests of greeting card and stationery manufacturers. John Beeder, former president of the Greeting Card Association, says greeting cards are effective tools to communicate important feelings to people you care about: "Anyone feels great when they receive an unexpected card in the mail. For me, there’s nothing like a greeting card to send a special message. I’m proud to be a part of an industry that not only keeps people connected, but uses both imagery and the power of words to help us express our emotions.”

History of greeting cards;
The custom of sending greeting cards can be traced back to the ancient Chinese, who exchanged messages of good will to celebrate the New Year, and to the early Egyptians, who conveyed their greetings on papyrus scrolls. By the early 15th century, handmade paper greeting cards were being exchanged in Europe. The Germans are known to have printed New Year's greetings from woodcuts as early as 1400, and handmade paper Valentines were being exchanged in various parts of Europe in the early to mid-15th century, with the oldest Valentine in existence being in the British Museum.
By the 1850s, the greeting card had been transformed from a relatively expensive, handmade and hand-delivered gift to a popular and affordable means of personal communication, due largely to advances in printing, mechanization, and a reduction in postal rates with the introduction of the postage stamp. This was followed by new trends like Christmas cards, the first of which appeared in published form in London in 1843 when Sir Henry Cole hired artist John Calcott Horsley to design a holiday card that he could send to his friends and acquaintances. In the 1860s, companies like Marcus Ward & Co, Goodall and Charles Bennett began the mass production of greeting cards. They employed well known artists such as Kate Greenaway and Walter Crane as illustrators and card designers.
Technical developments like color lithography in 1930 propelled the manufactured greeting card industry forward. Humorous greeting cards, known as studio cards, became popular in the late 1940s and 1950s.
In the 1970s Recycled Paper Greetings, a small company needing to establish a competing identity against the large companies like Hallmark Cards, began publishing humorous "whimsical" card designs with the artist's name credited on the back. This was away from what was known as the standard look (sometimes called the Hallmark look.) By the 1980s there was a thriving market for what were now called "alternative" greeting cards, and the name stuck even though these "alternative" cards changed the look of the entire industry.
The largest recorded number of greeting cards sent to a single person went to Craig Shergold, a beneficiary/victim of chain letters and later chain emails.

First ever valentines card
This is possibly the oldest printed Valentine's card in the world. The delicate card has been pierced to produce a lace effect in the corners and is decorated with cupids, doves and flowers which were probably hand coloured after printing. It was published on 12th January 1797 by John Fairburn of 146, Minories, London. It includes a verse printed around the edge:

"Since on this ever Happy day,
All Nature's full of Love and Play
Yet harmless still if my design,
'Tis but to be your Valentine."

The card was sent by Catherine Mossday to Mr Brown of Dover Place, Kent Road, London. Inside a handwritten message reads intriguingly:
Mr Brown,
As I have repeatedly requested you to come I think you must have some reason for not complying with my request, but as I have something particular to say to you I could wish you make it all agreeable to come on Sunday next without fail and in doing you will oblige your well wisher.
Catherine Mossday. 

Today over 2 billion greeting cards are sold annually in the UK covering all manner of occasions from birthdays to Bar Mitzvah's, new home to new job, good luck to graduation and much more besides. It is estimated that the size of the UK market is around £1.7 billion per annum. People in the UK send more cards per capita than any other nation.
The tradition of sending good wishes goes back many centuries, probably beginning with the Chinese and Egyptians who exchanged goodwill messages at the start of a new year to ward off evil spirits. However, these tokens were not sent at other times of year and didn't bear any resemblance to cards we recognise today.
There is evidence of printed cards from the 14th Century in Germany where images were carved onto wood blocks, which then be covered in ink and used to print onto paper. These forms of cards were very expensive since they were handmade so were only accessible to well to do and wealthy individuals.
Sir Henry Cole has been credited with establishing the first printed cards that has developed into the mass-production industry we know today. Cole asked his friend and artist John Calcott Horsely to create a painting that could be printed in quantity for him to give to all his friends. Sir Henry Cole was an enterprising man with interests in a number of areas. He quickly recognised the opportunity this printed greeting card could offer, even selling off the remaining stock of cards from this first print run in central London.
The introduction of the Penny Post service combined with improvements to print technologies and paper production quickly increased the popularity, availability and affordability of printed Christmas cards and by the early 1900's the Royal Mail was dealing with an extra 11 million cards during the festive season.
Card manufacturers began to recognise other events and occasions for which cards could be given, moving from Christmas cards to Valentines cards. The oldest example of a printed Valentine card is held in the British Museum.
Today cards are sent to celebrate all kinds of events, such as a child's first day at school, birthdays, congratulations, good luck, well done and even to acknowledge divorce. There are a large number of major card publishers producing cards to suit all tastes and pockets, including irreverent funny cards, traditional cards and detailed handmade cards.
The record for the largest number of cards sent to a single person is held by Craig Shergold, who was the victim of an early Internet chain letter. Craig was diagnosed with terminal brain cancer at the age of 9 and his family sent a request via email asking people to send him greeting cards so he could get into the Guinness Book of World records. Unfortunately they didn't put a time limit on the request and, by the end of 1991, he had been sent 35 million cards. American businessman, John Kluge, heard about Craig's condition and offered to pay for a life saving operation for him. The operation was successful and Craig recovered from the cancer, but cards continued to be sent to the Shergold's address. The family was allocated their own postcode and even moved house to escape from the deluge of mail that continued to arrive. The chain letter continued to weave its way across the globe and despite the record being retired by the Guinness Book of Records, cards are still being received. To date, over 350 million at the last count. 

Postcards are another type of greeting cards, which are single-sided without the fold, can function in a manner somewhat similar to greeting cards. Postcards appeared fairly early on in the history of the postal service as a cheaper way of sending messages, especially those of a tourist nature.

Latest figures about greetings cards;
  • The total single card market value is fairly static at £1.38bn with the Everyday category worth £1.008bn, showing a small increase.
  • The total single card market volume shows a smal decrease from 997m to 952m.
  • The average retail price (ARP) of a card is now £1.44, up from £1.39.
  • Christmas single card value has dropped slightly to £148m - the ARP has risen slightly to £1.52.
  • Spring Seasons volume remains the same at 87m.
  • Mother’s Day remains the largest Spring Seasons card sending event, showing a rise to £57.2m in 2011 from £56.4m in 2010, the ARP is slightly down to £1.87 from £1.91.
  • And the UK public continues to show its romantic side with Valentine's Day sales also increasing to £41.5m in 2011, up from £40.7m in 2010, with the highest ARP of all the categories tracked at £1.95. 

Facts about greetings cards;
  • The greeting card industry is directly and indirectly responsible for the jobs of 100,000 people in the UK including: publishers; artists, photographers and image suppliers; verse and prose writers; printers; paper and board companies; envelope and cello wrap suppliers; specialist finishers; warehousing and distribution companies; trade fair organisers and retailers.
  • No other country has such a tradition of card sending or card display in the home - the sending and receiving of cards is an important part of our culture. 85% of all cards are bought by women!
  • The UK card industry is acknowledged to be ten years ahead of the rest of the world in terms of design.
  • There are approximately 800 publishers in the UK, most of which are small businesses with fewer than five employees. Out of the 460 members of the GCA over 350 are small/micro businesses.
  • It’s a creative industry with strong bases in London, Nottinghamshire and the North, especially Yorkshire and Lancashire, where it has replaced many of the heavy manufacturing industries as a major employers.
  • Charities estimate that £50m is raised for good causes through the sales of charity Christmas cards each year.
  • Greeting cards are stocked in more types of outlet than any other product – with one in six retailers stocking greeting cards.
  • The commercial Christmas card was invented in 1846 by Sir Henry Cole, the chief organiser of the Great Exhibition, pioneer of the penny post and founder of the V&A Museum.
  • One of Sir Henry’s first Christmas cards, sent to his Grandmother was recently sold at auction for  £22,500.
  • Greeting card making is also the number one craft hobby, according to Crafts Beautiful, the top consumer craft magazine, which receives more enquiries about greeting cards than any other subject.

Target audience for greeting cards;
According to the Greeting Card Association, women account for 80 percent of greeting card sales. This means that four out of five purchases is going to be by a woman. Therefore regardless of who the end recipient of the card is, your key customer target is female. When you are preparing cards for sale, remember that even male themed cards are likely to be purchased my a female.
When men buy cards they are likely to buy cards for special occasions and generally only for their partner and family. Therefore planning products and marketing campaigns to target male shoppers and help them with their purchase decision should help to generate sales.

Categories for greetings cards;
There are two categories of greeting cards. These are every day cards and seasonal cards. The top selling every day card is the birthday card which accounts for over half of the total sold. This is followed by wedding and anniversary, get well and sympathy, and friendship and encouragement cards. Top selling seasonal cards are Christmas and holidays cards. These account for more than 60 percent of all seasonal card sales. These are followed by Valentine’s Day, Mother’s Day, Father’s Day and Graduation cards. Again, these are average figures, therefore this might not reflect your range of handmade cards based on your customer requirements. This does, however, provide a good base to plan from when you are starting a handmade card business.

Different types of greeting cards;
  • Standard greeting cards
  • Photo greeting cards
  • Personalised greeting cards
  • Re-useable greeting cards
  • Risque greeting cards
  • Musical greeting cards
  • Electronic greeting cards
  • Pop up cards
Trends in greetings cards;
There is a significant trend towards combing high technology with greeting cards, for instance musical cards or greeting cards that contain LED lights. People are now familiar with e-cards and these are becoming increasingly accepted. However as more greeting cards feature high-tech wizardry, so there is a growing appreciation for handmade cards. The Greeting Card Association refers to a special combination of card, artwork, and gift. This is a useful niche for the handmade card maker. If you are making quality handmade cards with lots of special details then these will be highly appreciated. This type of card will continue to grow in popularity as a balance to high-tech cards.

Largest greetings card companies;

Hallmark Cards;

At Hallmark, we strive to make our products as relevant to as many people as possible. With one of the world's largest creative staffs – around 625 artists, designers, stylists, writers, editors, web designers, and photographers – and the best researchers in the industry, we provide a year-round greeting card selection of more than 18,000 designs.
For consumers who want Hallmark quality but with customizable options, offers the ability to create one-of-a-kind greeting cards with personal sentiments, photos and sound clips. Cards can be chosen online and personalized at any time. Hallmark professionally prints the cards, and can even address, stamp and mail them. There's also a free app for iPhone® called Hallmark Go Cards that makes the "perfect" card available anytime, from anywhere. also provides a variety of ecards to enable consumers to connect digitally. Some ecards feature popular music, TV and movie clips, and animation. Hallmark Card Studio software provides the tools to create greeting cards on a home printer.
In addition, people can compete to have their creations featured in Hallmark cards through a series of Your Greeting Card competitions at Contestants submit a cover image and message for a chance to be chosen as a winner and have their creation made into a real Hallmark card.;
Source is a business based in Guernsey and London which sells personalised greeting cards. The website was launched in July 2000, and in 2007 the company was responsible for 90 percent of the online greeting card market in the United Kingdom, with nearly six million cards shipped.
 According to founder Nick Jenkins, 'Moonpig' was his nickname at school, hence the name of the brand.
Customers who visit the website can choose from a large selection of basic card designs and enter their own text to personalise them. In addition to cards, the company offers customisable spoof magazine covers and invitations, where customers can upload their own photos for printing.
The original launch of in 2000 coincided with the collapse of the dot-com bubble which meant progress was difficult at first, but Jenkins raised further investment from private investors and venture capital, and the advent of broadband and digital cameras together with news spreading by word-of-mouth meant sales steadily increased, with the first profits being made in 2005. A television advertising campaign began in the United Kingdom in November 2006, and in February 2008 received more internet traffic than other flower and gift companies in the UK. By Summer 2009, the company had 2.57 million customers and its profit record was seen by The Times as "a typical curve for a successful start-up — a big, £1 million loss establishing it in its first year, negligible losses edging into negligible earnings over the next six years, and thereafter a seven-figure profit".
The company was initially based in Chelsea, but moved to Guernsey in 2006, maintaining a small office in London to deal with marketing and IT software. Along with the other Channel Islands, Guernsey has a VAT exemption on UK-bound goods costing less than £18. The business expanded into the Australian market in 2004, and in late 2009, the business expanded its offering to include a range of flowers and custom mug designs. In spring 2010, Moonpig launched in the United States.
In July 2011, Moonpig was bought by PhotoBox.

My preference;
In my opinion after looking for personalised cards for a friends birthday on, I found that I didn't like any of the cards, I thought that they were all very generic and very samey.
I didn't find one card which I thought was appropriate or good enough for my friend, I personally wouldn't buy a card which I didn't like therefore wouldn't use Moonpig, or Funkypigeon. I prefer homemade cards or screen printed cards, or just really well designed cards, rather than just mass produced ones. As well as homemade cards in shops, there are websites which sell them too, and think that's a good idea, but most of the website I ave found, are very children based for example,

This is a website I found which sell handmade cards, and gives people ideas to make their own handmade cards, I think that I will refer to this website a lot if I was making cards, it not only shows you what you can do, but also shows the techniques on how to make them.

Handmade cards;
I would rather but a card like this, which is simple, handmade, embossed and with a limited colour palette, it looks a lot more professional then any card which I found on moonpig and appeals to me more. Because 80%-85% of card buyers are women I think that this is a better card, as I think that moonpig cards are mostly bought by men, as it is the easier option, they can do it from home, and if its late can say its in the post, also moonpig offers gift packages.

Another thing I found when I was searching for card designs I like, are that there are a lot of bikes, they are screen printed onto a good quality stock, and it works really well, a lot of people are doing this at the moment. Something that makes the cards better designed is the limited colour palette, as on the personal card websites they are all very colourful and cluttered.

These cards have been lino cut and hand printed, I think this makes a difference to the quality of the cards and also the receiver of the card will know how unique the cards are. I also like the design of what is on the cards, they are aesthetically pleasing.

This card has been digitally printed, but I think it works so well because there are only three colours and stock used, the design is clean and clear. I also think that this could work well as a screen print.

The positive picture that this market report paints shows that despite rocky times on the high street, the increase in online print on demand and the rise of social media, the UK greeting card industry is healthy, vibrant and still a world leader. Greeting cards remain an ever important part of the UK social culture – people clearly still want to celebrate everyday and special occasions with their loved ones, and to mark many of life’s key ‘connecting’ moments with the sending of a card.

The reason why I wanted to research greetings cards, specifically homemade and screen printed cards is because I collect cards when I see ones I like, also I like giving and receiving cards, its a lovely thing to do. This quote explains why I have researched cards, "Greeting cards help fulfill an enduring need people have to connect with others. People say there's something special about finding "just the right card" – one they know will get a reaction from the person who receives it. They say giving cards is affirming. It feels good to send them, and it feels good to receive them." Source

No comments:

Post a Comment