Monday, 16 September 2013

Research Topic 3

Research Topic 3;
One of my topics for my summer brief is going to be Penguins, this is because I really like them, they are one of my favourite animals and I have previously done a project on them and I think there is a lot of research that can be done on Penguins, and it is an interest of mine. There is a lot of things that people don't know about Penguins, one of which being how many different kinds of Penguins there are.


General information about Penguins;
Penguins (order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) are a group of aquatic, flightless birds living almost exclusively in the Southern Hemisphere, especially in Antarctica. Highly adapted for life in the water, penguins have countershaded dark and white plumage, and their wings have evolved into flippers. Most penguins feed on krill, fish, squid and other forms of sealife caught while swimming underwater. They spend about half of their lives on land and half in the oceans.
Although all penguin species are native to the Southern Hemisphere, they are not found only in cold climates, such as Antarctica. In fact, only a few species of penguin live so far south. Several species are found in the temperate zone, and one species, the Galápagos Penguin, lives near the equator.
The largest living species is the Emperor Penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri): on average adults are about 1.1 m (3 ft 7 in) tall and weigh 35 kg (75 lb) or more. The smallest penguin species is the Little Blue Penguin (Eudyptula minor), also known as the Fairy Penguin, which stands around 40 cm tall (16 in) and weighs 1 kg (2.2 lb). Among extant penguins, larger penguins inhabit colder regions, while smaller penguins are generally found in temperate or even tropical climates (see also Bergmann's Rule). Some prehistoric species attained enormous sizes, becoming as tall or as heavy as an adult human. These were not restricted to Antarctic regions; on the contrary, subantarctic regions harboured high diversity, and at least one giant penguin occurred in a region not quite 2,000 km south of the equator 35 mya, in a climate decidedly warmer than today.

Different species of Penguins;
Not a lot of people know how many species of Penguins there are, and there has been a lot of debate about how many there are, I have found that there are 18 different species of Penguins and 6 different genus's of Penguins. Also all of the Penguins have common names and scientific names, and all belong to a genus.

  • African (Spheniscus demersus)
  • Galapagos (Spheniscus Mendiculus)
  • Humboldt (Spheniscus humboldti)
  • Magellanic (Spheniscus magellanicus)
  • Adelie (Pygoscelis adeliae)
  • Chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica)
  • Gentoo (Pygoscelis papua)
  • Yellow-eyed (Megadyptes antipodes)
  • Little (Eudyptula minor)
  • White Flippered (Eudyptula albosignata)
  • Erect-crested (Eudyptes sclarteri)
  • Fiordland (Eudyptes pachyrhychus)
  • Macaroni (Eudyptes chrysolophus)
  • Rockhopper (Eudyptes chrysocome)
  • Snares (Eudyptes robustus)
  • Royal (Eudyptes schlengeli)
  • Emperor (Aptenodytes forsteri)
  • King (Aptenodytes patagonicus)
The problems most people have with not knowing how many Penguin species there are in the world is because they look very similar to people who don't know a lot about them, although they all have specific attributes about them that make them different from others. I found a lot of information from, although it shows that there are 16 different species of penguins whereas there are actually 18, so had to find a different source for the other two penguins.

Scientific name: Pygoscelis adeliae (Adelie)
Identification: Source
A medium-sized penguin recognised by its white eye-ring. Feathers on the back of the head are slightly elongated and can be raised to form a small crest. Light-coloured individuals occur rarely in some colonies. Immature birds up to 14 months of age differ from adults in having a white rather than black chin and they lack the white ring around their eyes.

Size: 5.4 kg (m), 4.7 kg (f)
Nest type: in colonies in the open, use stones to line nest
Favourite food: krill

No penguin, indeed no other bird, breeds further south than Adelie Penguins. Adelie Penguins show a number of specialised adaptations to the cold often encountered by this species that restrict heat loss. 

Breeds from October to February on shores around the Antarctic continent, South Shetland, South Orkney, South Sandwich, and Bouvetøya Islands. At sea Adelie Penguins are usually found from the edge of the shelf-ice to the northern extent of the pack-ice.

Scientific name: Spheniscus demersus (African)
Identification: Source
The only penguin occurring regularly in southern Africa. African Penguins, like Humboldt Penguins, differ from Magellanic Penguins in that they lack a second dark breast band (although some African Penguins do have an additional breast band). The area of naked skin reaches all around the eye and is more extensive than that in Humboldt Penguins. Immature African Penguins have a grey face and lack the pied pattern of adults. Adult plumage occurs after 14 months.

Size: 3.3 kg (m), 3.0 kg (f)
Nest type: burrow or under bushes/rocks
Favourite food: small fish

This is the only penguin breeding in Africa and was probably the first penguin encountered by Europeans. Numbers declined significantly during the Twentieth Century and their future has been jeopardized recently by major oil spills.

As the name suggests, the African Penguin is endemic to southern Africa with the largest concentrations along the Benguela Current, which brings nutrient-rich water to the west coast of South Africa and Namibia.

Scientific name: Pygoscelis antarctica (Chinstrap)
Identification: Source
Chinstrap Penguins are medium-sized penguins, easily recognised by their white face and the fine black line across the cheeks. The demarcation between the black and white lies above the eye, isolating the dark eye in the white plumage. The bill is black. In contrast to most other penguins, juvenile Chinstraps closely resemble their parents. Until their first moult, juveniles can be recognised by dark spotting around the eyes and a slightly shorter bill.

Size: 5.0 kg (m), 4.8 kg (f)
Nest type: in colonies in the open
Favourite food: krill

This delicately coloured bird is arguably the most beautiful of penguins. In contrast to other adult penguins, apart from Royal Penguins, this species has a white face. This is separated from the white belly by a thin dark line running under the lower part of the chin - therefore the name.

Intermediate between the Adelie in the south and the Gentoo Penguin in the north. Breeding colonies are almost exclusively on the Scotia Arc: that is, around the Antarctic Peninsula on South Georgia, South Orkney, South Shetland, and South Sandwich Islands (vast numbers on the latter). Small numbers also breed on Bouvetøya, Peter First, Heard and Balleny Islands.

Scientific name: Aptenodytes forsteri (Emperor)

Identification: Source
The Emperor Penguin is bigger than any other living penguin, standing up to 1.1 m tall. It is distinguished from the smaller King Penguin by its size, more robust stature, and a broad pale yellow connection between the orange-yellow ear patches and the pale yellow upper breast. Immature birds resemble adults but are smaller and have a white rather than black chin. Ear patches are whitish, becoming increasingly yellow with age.

Size: 36.7 kg (m), 28.4kg (f)
Nest type: breed on sea ice in winter, egg carried on feet
Favourite food: fish and squid

The Emperor Penguin is a bird of extremes in just about every way. It breeds during the Antarctic winter and exhibits many adaptations to the extreme cold that these birds experience when breeding.

Breeds during the Antarctic winter in about 30 colonies around the southern parts of the Antarctic continent, usually on fast ice. Probably depends a lot upon polynias – areas of open water surrounded by sea ice – during winter.

Scientific name: Eudyptes sclateri (Erect-crested)
Identification: Source
Similar to other crested penguins, in particular Snares and Fiordland Penguins. When dry on land Erect-crested Penguin can be identified by the upright yellow feather plumes of their crests. Erect-crested Penguins have a distinct gular pouch, a more parallel bill, and the yellow supercilium attaches higher on the bill than in Snares and Fiordland Penguins. Identification at sea is extremely difficult because feather plumes droop down when wet. Immatures have a pale yellow supercilium without the long plumes and a mottled grey throat. They can be distinguished from other crested penguins by the lower supercilium, size and gular pouch.

Size: 5.2 kg (m), 5.1 kg (f)
Nest type: in colonies in the open; nest on rocks with little to no nesting material to line nests
Favourite food: krill and squid

A little-known rather bizarre bird with a limited breeding distribution in a very isolated part the world.

In an arc that characterizes the distribution of crested penguins, from the Antarctic Peninsula and South America through the sub-Antarctic islands in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, Erect-crested Penguins form the terminal species in the east. They are now restricted to the Bounty and Antipodes Islands, with a few isolated pairs still breeding on the Auckland Islands. All these sites are south of the subtropical convergence but well north of the polar front. Until recently there were also some birds breeding on Campbell Island, but they seem to have disappeared from there now. Abundant sub-fossil material from the Chatham Islands has also been attributed to this species.

Scientific name: Eudyptes pachyrhynchus (Fiordland)

Identification: Source
Similar to Snares Penguin, with a thick yellow stripe running above the eye and ending in a dropping plume. Distinguished from Snares Penguin by its larger size, a series of white streaks on the cheeks and the lack of a fleshy margin at the base of the bill. Immature birds have a mottled white chin, thinner dull yellow supercilium and probably cannot be safely distinguished from Snares Penguin.

Size: 4.1 kg (m), 3.7 kg (f)
Nest type: in forest under vegetation or rocks; in caves
Favourite food: fish and squid

The Fiordland Penguin lives in the temperate rainforest of the southwest coast of the South Island and Stewart Island, New Zealand, where it is endemic.

Endemic to New Zealand. Breeds in the cold rainforest of the southwest coast of the South Island down to Stewart Island.

Scientific name: Spheniscus mendiculus (Galapagos)

Identification: Source
They are the smallest of the Spheniscus penguins. Distinguished by their relatively large bill and narrow white line around the face.

Size: 2.1 kg (m), 1.7 kg (f)
Nest type: burrow or crevices in lava
Favourite food: small fish

The northernmost of all penguins, Galapagos Penguins breed right on the equator. Populations fluctuate heavily under the influence of El Niño to a degree that the future survival of the species is endangered.

Endemic to the Galapagos Islands where it breeds on Isabela, Fernandina and possibly Bartholomew. Distribution seems to be correlated with the Cromwell Current, which provides cold nutrient-rich surface water.

Scientific name: Pygoscelis papua (Gentoo)

Identification: Source
Gentoo Penguins are characterised by a white patch around and behind the eye that joins on the crown. The orange-red lower mandible is also a distinct feature. Two subspecies are recognised: a larger form in the sub-Antarctic and a smaller, but otherwise similar subspecies on the Antarctic Peninsula. Juveniles are very similar to adults, but the white eye-patch is not connected to their white eye-rings until they moult at an age of 14 months.

Size: 5.6 kg (m), 5.1 kg (f)
Nest type: in colonies in the open
Favourite food: krill and fish

This is the most northern penguin of this genus and, in many other respects, the odd one out. In contrast to Chinstrap and Adelie Penguins, some Gentoo Penguins can be found around their breeding colonies all year round and they forage much closer inshore than the other two Pygoscelis species.

Mainly in the sub-Antarctic, but extending to the Antarctic Peninsula. Breeds on Staten, Falkland, South Georgia, South Sandwich, South Orkney, South Shetland, the Antarctic Peninsula, Marion, Prince Edward, Crozet, Kerguelen, Heard, and Macquarie Islands. There is some evidence that the size of colonies depend on the local width of the continental shelf, i.e. the available inshore foraging area.

Scientific name: Spheniscus humboldti (Humboldt)

Identification: Source
Similar to Magellanic Penguins, but lacks the second dark breast band and has a wider white band around the head. Humboldt Penguins also have more extensive areas of bare skin than Magellanic Penguins, including a pink fleshy patch at the base of the lower mandible. Immature birds are very similar to those of Magellanic Penguins but are generally darker on the head.

Size: 4.9 kg (m), 4.5 kg (f)
Nest type: burrow or cave
Favourite food: small fish

Endemic to the cold nutrient-rich waters of the Peru Current, the Humboldt Penguin breeds in a hot Mediterranean to desert climate. Populations fluctuate under the influence of El Niño events, which can cause significant breeding failure and adult starvation.

Endemic to the Humboldt Current, breeding range extending from 5° S in Peru to 37°S in Chile, with isolated colonies existing as far as 42°S near Puerto Montt.

Scientific name: Aptenodytes patagonicus (King)

Identification: Source
The second-largest penguin species, similar in appearance to Emperor Penguin, but their ranges do not usually overlap. Cheeks are dark orange. The belly is white but the back is paler than other penguins, more of a grey than black. Immatures are similar to adults, but with duller facial plumage. Ear patches are pale yellow rather than orange and the throat is grey-white. Reaches adult plumage after two years.

Size: 16.0 kg (m), 14.3 kg (f)
Nest type: in colonies in the open, have territories but no nest
Favourite food: fish, some squid

No other bird has a longer breeding cycle than King Penguins. They take 14 to 16 months to fledge a single chick. During the winter, chicks may be left to fast for from one to five months (May to September/October). Adults can rear a maximum of only two chicks every three years.

Restricted to the sub-Antarctic belt, well north of Emperor Penguins. Breeding colonies are found on Falkland (re-colonised after extermination), South Georgia, Marion, Prince Edward, Crozet (over half of the world’s population), Kerguelen, Heard (re-colonised after extermination), and Macquarie Islands. At sea, King Penguins are usually found in ice-free waters. Telemetry studies have shown that they forage particularly along the polar front.

Scientific name: Eudyptula minor (Little)

Identification: Source
The Little Penguin closely resembles juveniles of the genus Spheniscus, but their ranges do not overlap. Upper parts are pale blue to a dark grey-blue depending upon age, season and subspecies. The transition from the dark upper parts to the white plumage of the lower body is not as well defined as in other penguins, going through shades of grey and brown, especially in the face.

Size: 1.2 kg (m), 1.0 kg (f)
Nest type: burrow, cave or under bushes
Favourite food: small fish

The world’s smallest penguin (also known as Little Blue, Blue and Fairy Penguin).

Little Penguins are widely distributed in Australia (from Western Australia along the southern coast of Australia up to New South Wales) and in New Zealand (from Northland to Stewart Island and the Chatham Islands). The White-flippered Penguin (E. m. albosignata) is an endangered subspecies, restricted to Banks Peninsula and Motonau Island (South Island, New Zealand) that has often been treated as a full species. Geographic variation of size, extent of white on the tail and flipper, and colour tone of the back is considerable. Six subspecies have been described: novaehollandia in Australia, iredaei in northern New Zealand, variabilis from Cook Strait, New Zealand, albosignata on Banks Peninsula, minor in the lower part of the South Island, New Zealand, and chathamensis from the Chatham Islands.

Scientific name: Eudyptes chrysolophus (Macaroni)

Identification: Source
In contrast to the other crested Penguins, this species has orange, not yellow, feather plumes. They originate from a supercilium that meets at the front, i.e. higher up the head than in other species. Macaroni Penguins are also slightly larger than the other crested penguins. Most Macaroni Penguins breeding on Macquarie Island (south of Australia) have a white face and are referred to as Royal Penguins: they are sometimes given full species status (Eudyptes schlegeli), although the biological basis for doing so is very doubtful. Immatures are similar to adults but lack the long feather crest. Instead only a short orange-yellow supercilium is present.

Size: 5.2 kg (m), 5.3kg (f)
Nest type: in colonies in the open
Favourite food: krill

This is probably the most abundant of all penguins in terms of total numbers. Brood reduction is taken to an extreme by this species. The Royal Penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus schlegeli), a white-faced variant, is treated as a subspecies of Macaroni Penguin here, but others accord the Royal penguin full species status.

The distribution of Macaroni Penguin extends from the sub-Antarctic to the Antarctic Peninsula, but overall they are found further south than the rest of the crested penguins. The range overlaps with that of the southern form of the Rockhopper Penguin. Breeding colonies are found on the Antarctic Peninsula, islands around Cape Horn, Falklands, South Georgia, South Sandwich, South Orkney, South Shetland, Bouvetøya, Prince Edward, Marion, Crozet, Kerguelen, Heard Island and Macquarie Island.

Scientific name: Spheniscus magellanicus (Magellanic)

Identification: Source
It is the only Spheniscus penguin found over most of its range, but overlaps the distribution of Humboldt Penguins around Puerto Montt, Chile. Humboldt Penguins lack the second dark breast band found in Magellanic Penguin and have more extensive areas of bare facial skin. However, as both of these characters are subject to individual variation and hybrids do occur, not every bird might be identifiable. Some immature birds undergo partial head moult during winter and gain the pied head pattern of adults.

Size: 4.9 kg (m), 4.6 kg (f)
Nest type: burrow or under bushes
Favourite food: small fish

Similar to African Penguin (to which it is very closely related), but breeding on the opposite side of the Atlantic. It is also the only migratory, offshore-foraging species in this genus.

Breeds around the southern tip of South America from 40°S in Argentina to 37°S in Chile, as well as on the Falkland Islands. The largest colonies are found on the Atlantic side of South America.

Scientific name: Eudyptes chrysocome (Rockhopper)

Identification: Source
Rockhoppers are distinguished from other crested penguins by their smaller size and by having only a thin yellow superscilium. The feather plumes are yellow, not orange as in Macaroni Penguin, and thinner than in the remaining Eudyptes species. The red eye is distinctive. Southern Rockhopper Penguins differ from their Northern counterparts in having a narrower supercilium and shorter plumes, which reach just over the black throat. Their vocalisations are also different. The Southern Rockhopper actually comprises two subspecies that have been described and can be identified in the field: the nominate form from South America and the Falkland Islands and the eastern subspecies filholi from the New Zealand sub-Antarctic islands. The eastern form mainly differs from the nominate subspecies in having a pink line of fleshy skin along the lower mandible which is black in the nominate subspecies. Immature birds have only a narrow supercilium and a pale mottled grey chin. Identification of juveniles is difficult. Shape of the supercilium, bill shape, body size and underwing pattern can aid identification. Separation of juvenile Southern and Northern Rockhopper Penguins in the field is probably impossible.

Size: 2.5 kg (m), 2.4 kg (f)
Nest type: in colonies in the open; sometimes in association with other species
Favourite food: krill, fish and squid

Breeding in sometimes-large colonies throughout the sub-Antarctic. Smaller than its congeners, but no less aggressive. There is some evidence that the Northern Rockhopper or Moseley’s Penguin is deserving of separate species status. Whatever, the Northern Rockhopper and Southern Rockhopper are clearly closely related and much of what applies to one probably holds for the other, but actual data are still scarce.

The northern form of the Rockhopper Penguin breeds in cool temperate climates, generally north of the subtropical convergence, with breeding occurring on Tristan da Cunha and Gough Island in the Atlantic Ocean and St. Paul and Amsterdam Islands in the Indian Ocean. The breeding season starts three months earlier (July) than in the southern form. The latter is restricted to the northern sub-Antarctic and has a circumpolar distribution. Breeding colonies are around the Cape Horn area, Falklands, Prince Edward, Marion, Crozet, Kerguelen, Heard, Macquarie, Campbell, Auckland and Antipodes Islands. Campbell Island used to be the eastern stronghold of the species, but the population there has plummeted recently.
Scientific name: Eudyptes robustus (Snares)

Identification: Source
Similar to Fiordland Penguins (see above for differences). Differs from Erect-crested Penguins in having drooping feather plumes on the crest, the yellow facial stripe reaches further up the bill, and they have a more conical bill. The underwing pattern is highly variable and of little use for identification in the field.

Size: 3.3 kg (m), 2.8 kg (f)
Nest type: in colonies in the open or under forest canopy
Favourite food: krill, squid and fish

Similar in many respects to Fiordland Penguin but endemic to the Snares Islands, which are about 100 km south of the nearest Fiordland Penguin breeding sites. With its breeding range confined to the just over 300 ha of the Snares group, it has the most restricted distribution of all penguins.

Endemic to the Snares Islands south of New Zealand. Little is known about the non-breeding distribution.

Scientific name: Megadyptes antipodes (Yellow-eyed)

Identification: Source
Adults are unmistakable with their yellow eyes and yellow eye-stripes that join on the back of the head. Moulting birds and birds at sea can be confused with crested penguins. Immature birds are similar to adults but have a pale yellow chin and a less vivid yellow eye-stripe.

Size: 5.7 kg (m), 5.4kg (f)
Nest type: under dense vegetation
Favourite food: fish and squid

The Yellow-eyed Penguin is often referred to as the rarest penguin in the world, although, unfortunately, there are others that could lay claim to that crown too: especially the Galapagos and Fiordland Penguins.

Endemic to New Zealand, Yellow-eyed Penguins breed on the east and south coast of the South Island, on and around Stewart Island, the Auckland Islands, and Campbell Islands.

Scientific name: Eudyptula albosignata (White Flippered)  

Identification: Source

This penguins has an overall blue appearence, it is very similar to the little penguin. It is distinguished with a broad white trailing and leading edges of the flipper, this is where it gets the name White-flippered.

Size: 1.6 kg (m), 1.4kg (f)
Nest type: burrow, cave or under bushes
Favourite food: small fish

White-flippered penguins previously were classified as a subspecies of the little penguin, and it now established as its own species, although it is now endangered.

Endemic to Canterbury, New Zealand. They breed only on banks of Peninsula and Motunau Island.

Scientific name: Eudyptes schlengeli (Royal)

Identification: Source

Royal penguins have a white front, chin and face and have a black back. Their beaks are orange, and they have a yellow-orange crest on their head.

Size: 4.9 kg (m), 4.7kg (f)
Nest type: in colonies in the open
Favourite food: krill and fish

The Royal penguin can swim up to 30km/hr which is 20mph. It is also confused for a Macaroni penguin, and is one of the penguins which some people mistake for a similar species, but it is actually its own species.

The are found in waters surrounding Antarctica, during breeding season they come ashore to breed on Macquarie Island.

Primary Research;
I went to Harewood house, as it is the closest place to me where there are Penguins, and took some pictures, and these Penguins are Humboldt Penguins, these are the most common Penguins found in England in zoos and Sealife centers.

Penguins in popular culture;
Penguins are popular around the world, primarily for their unusually upright, waddling gait and (compared to other birds) lack of fear of humans. Their striking black-and-white plumage is often likened to a white tie suit. Mistakenly, some artists and writers have penguins based at the North Pole. This is incorrect, as there are almost no wild penguins in the Northern Hemisphere, except the small group on the northernmost of the Galápagos. The cartoon series Chilly Willy helped perpetuate this myth, as the title penguin would interact with northern-hemisphere species such as polar bears and walruses.
Penguins have been the subject of many books and films such as Happy Feet, Surf's Up and The Penguins of Madagascar, all CGI films; March of the Penguins, a documentary based on the migration process of the Emperor Penguin; and a parody titled Farce of the Penguins. Mr. Popper's Penguins is a children's book written by Richard & Florence Atwater; it was named a Newbery Honor Book in 1939. Penguins have also found their way into a number of cartoons and television dramas; perhaps the most notable of these is Pingu, created by Silvio Mazzola in 1986 and covering more than 100 short episodes. Entertainment Weekly put it on its end-of-the-decade, "best-of" list, saying, "Whether they were walking (March of the Penguins), dancing (Happy Feet), or hanging ten (Surf's Up), these oddly adorable birds took flight at the box office all decade long."
Several pro, minor, college and high school sport teams have named themselves after the species, with the Pittsburgh Penguins team in the National Hockey League and the Youngstown State Penguins being the most recognizable.
The tendency of penguins to form large groups feeds the stereotype that they all look exactly alike, a popular notion exploited by cartoonists such as Gary Larson.
Penguins featured regularly in the cartoons of UK cartoonist Steve Bell in his strip in The Guardian Newspaper, particularly during and following the Falklands War, and the well-known Opus the Penguin from the cartoons of Berkeley Breathed, is also described as hailing from the Falklands. Opus was a comical, "existentialist" penguin character in the cartoons Bloom County, Outland and Opus. He was also the star in the Christmas show A Wish for Wings That Work.
In the mid-2000s, penguins became one of the most publicized species of animals that form lasting homosexual couples. A children's book, And Tango Makes Three, was written about one such penguin family in the New York Zoo.

Packaging such as juice boxes that look like a penguin is really interesting, the target audience is for children, this is clear because of how playful the packaging is, and it is very successful.
I found this and it reminded me of penguins, due to the use of colours and shapes, I really like this design because of how simple it is, it doesn't have to suggest that it is to do with Penguins using typography, purely having suggestive shapes and colours allow the imagination to work.

Penguin books are very famous now, and they inspire a lot of people in the way that they are so effective and they are very established as a brand.

This is a creative advertisement for Penguin Books, I think that the way that it has been produced is to a high quality, parallel to the company, but it is also playful. Using books to create effect is a creative way of playing with the idea of Penguin books and Penguins inside book and make out of the pages in books. I just think that this is a good advert which is aesthetically pleasing and effective in the way that it promotes Penguin Books.

The simple way that this shows an Adelie Penguin works really well, it is clear what the illustration is, and helps people to identify what species of Penguin it is by using a limited colour palette.
This is an Iphone wallpaper, it is a creative melted version of a Penguin which I really like and think works really well as a wallpaper, it is targeted at many people, especially Iphone users, also it resembles the most well known Penguin, which is the Emperor Penguin.

My designs;
I decided that I would help people to easily be able to tell penguins apart, and find out what each are called with some of the basic information about them, I found that this was a problem that a lot of people had, therefore created characters for each of the species of penguins on illustrator, showing the key feature on each of them, so that people can tell them apart.

Examples of my penguin designs;
Little Penguin

African Prnguin

Royal Penguin
After doing this I decided to make a penguin guide, something accessible and small so that you can carry it around, but also make it readable and clear.

Penguin guide
I made a guide which chowed the name of the penguins, the scientific names of each of the penguins, how tall they are, and where they live. I also provided the illustrations of all of the penguins, showing the key attributes to identify each of them, this is so that anyone can tell all of the penguins apart, and learn more about the species of penguins.

Height guide
I produced a height guide so make it more clear about the differences between the heights of each penguins, this is one of the key features of establishing the differences between each of the penguins.

Penguin display font
I decided to create a display font using penguins in different shapes to create letter, I experimented with many different versions for each letter, but found that this worked the best, so made words such as 'Penguin Guide' and "Height Chart' to go on the front of each of them. I also created 'Penguin Dilema' for the front of my information pack, as I decided to make a simple pack to help people identify the Penguins.

These are the Penguin Dilema kits, with the type screen printed on the front of all of the boxes, and there are 4 different coloured boxes to choose from. Each box includes a Penguin chocolate, 'Say No To Average Joe' Penguin stamp, Height Chart and Penguin Guide. As I have already produced this design, I think that taking this research further would be a mistake as I think I have done enough design on Penguins, I think that it would be better for me to move forward with a different topic to research.

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