Thursday, 3 October 2013


My Presentation;

Quote by Hallmark cards, good reason why I wanted to research greeting cards.

- The card industry is seen to be 10 years ahead of the rest of the world in terms of design.
- First commercial Christmas card was invented in 1846 by Sir Henry Cole, the card he sent to his mother has recently been sold for £22,500.

Although 80-85% of card purchases are made by women, men tend to spend more on a single card then a woman would.

Greeting cards are traced back to ancient Chinese to celebrate the New Year.

Handmade paper Valentines cards were introduced in Europe in the early 15th Century, this card is the oldest found valentines cards and is displayed in a British museum currently.

- Large advances in print in the 1850s, now card sending is a popular and affordable way to communicate.
- Technical developments like colour lithography in 1930, which increase the manufacturing of greeting cards.
- In 1980 there was a thiriving market for 'alternative cards' which are humorous and whimsical designs.

Women are the target audience as 80-85% of card buyers are women.

Explain why I like greetings cards, and why this one in particular.

Talk about screen print and how I would like to try and do some screen printing with cards.

My Feedback;
After my presentation I received feedback from my group, some of which was constructive, and some which was just nice. I organised my post-it notes into categories of which were helpful and which were just nice.

5 helpful, 3 not very helpful.
-- Just being nice
-- Helpful
-- Could be helpful

Really enjoyed your presentation.
You know good facts about greetings cards.

Really well presented, clearly spoken.
Was a nice touch that you brought your own cards in to show your interest.

Interesting topic that you clearly enjoy and are passionate about.
Good sense of direction about where you can take your research.

Shows keen interest in greeting card history and seems very knowledgeable.
Good idea to bring examples.
Could try making your own cards and experimenting with process and media.

Good combination of content and current stats ect.
Good to explain why you like it and bringing in examples.
Showed/told us about your plan to further it, which is good.
Could have focused on an era or area? As it was quite broad.

Really interesting statistics.
Physical examples show that you are really interested in your subject.
Aspirations for your subject in your own work.

Good overall knowledge.
Good use of facts and figures to validate your research.
Could improve design of presentation, make it more design related.
Good links to your own design production.

Good knowledge on statistics as well as history.
Interesting how the cards have changed according to social life.
Passionate on subject.
Good ideas for the future.

Monday, 30 September 2013

Research Topic 2

Research Topic 2;
One of the topics that I am going to research for my summer brief is printed cards, I have chosen this because I find them really interesting. A greeting card is an illustrated, folded card featuring an expression of friendship or other sentiment. Although greeting cards are usually given on special occasions such as birthdays, Christmas or other holidays, they are also sent to convey thanks or express other feeling. Greeting cards, usually packaged with an envelope, come in a variety of styles and designs, which is why I find them so interesting. There are both mass-produced as well as handmade versions that are distributed by hundreds of companies large and small. I prefer handmade and screen printed cards as I think that they are more personal than the generic greeting cards, and are most of the time designed better, and usually more expensive than others.
"Greeting cards help fulfill an enduring need people have to connect with others. People say there's something special about finding "just the right card" – one they know will get a reaction from the person who receives it. They say giving cards is affirming. It feels good to send them, and it feels good to receive them." Source

Examples of cards I like;
I decided to start my research by looking through design blogs and websites to find some examples of greeting cards I like.

I found this image on google, I really like it because of the use of colour, using only one colour with different opacity's gives more detail to the design without making it look tacky or overly complicated. The colours used are also appropriate to the cards use, and the target audience for the cards. These card could be screen printed or digitally printed, this would work really well as a screen print, and is something I want to experiment with in the second year.

I found one of these images which led me to a website where there was more versions of the same style cards. I have found that there is a lot of bikes and vehicles that have been printed onto cards, I think that they work really well, it is a way to show off the detail you can get with a screen print. This is what I like so much in these screen printed greeting cards, the fact that you can see how much detail has gone into each one, just by using different opacity's of the same colour.

I went onto a website called ohsobeautifulpaper, and found that it was full of greeting card designs, posters, and vouchers. They are all completely different styles but that is because they are all for different audiences.
These vouchers and greeting cards are aesthetically pleasing, although they are purely type based cards, I think that they work really well for what the are used for, and each have specific target audiences that will enjoy them.
These cards are very different to the others on this website, they are handmade, and are very simply and effective. The target audience for these cards are very clear because of the colour of the bows, together they look like they should be for a congratulations for a new baby girl or boy, but because there is not type on them, it can be used for many different occasions.

This image is a really good example of the kind of design I want to do in my second year, it is simple yet really well produced. These cards have been screen printed onto two different stocks, and it looks really effective, this is because of the colours used. These greeting cards are going to be a big influence on my design this year as I am wanting to produce some cards that work as well as these do, also I want to experiment with more screen prints, as it is my favourite production method.

This is another ood example of what I am wanting to do in the second year, but not as much for the illustration on the front, but I like the use of colours on different coloured stocks.

Information about greeting cards;
A greeting card is an illustrated, folded card featuring an expression of friendship or other sentiment. Although greeting cards are usually given on special occasions such as birthdays, Christmas or other holidays, they are also sent to convey thanks or express other feeling. Greeting cards, usually packaged with an envelope, come in a variety of styles. There are both mass-produced as well as handmade versions that are distributed by hundreds of companies large and small. While typically inexpensive, more elaborate cards with die-cuts or glued-on decorations may be more expensive.
Hallmark Cards and American Greetings are the largest producers of greeting cards in the world. In the United Kingdom, it is estimated that one billion pounds are spent on greeting cards every year, with the average person sending 55 cards per year.
In western countries and increasingly in other societies, many people traditionally mail seasonally themed cards to their friends and relatives in December. Many service businesses also send cards to their customers in this season, usually with a universally acceptable non-religious message such as "happy holidays" or "seasons's greetings".
The Greeting Card Association is an international trade organization representing the interests of greeting card and stationery manufacturers. John Beeder, former president of the Greeting Card Association, says greeting cards are effective tools to communicate important feelings to people you care about: "Anyone feels great when they receive an unexpected card in the mail. For me, there’s nothing like a greeting card to send a special message. I’m proud to be a part of an industry that not only keeps people connected, but uses both imagery and the power of words to help us express our emotions.”

History of greeting cards;
The custom of sending greeting cards can be traced back to the ancient Chinese, who exchanged messages of good will to celebrate the New Year, and to the early Egyptians, who conveyed their greetings on papyrus scrolls. By the early 15th century, handmade paper greeting cards were being exchanged in Europe. The Germans are known to have printed New Year's greetings from woodcuts as early as 1400, and handmade paper Valentines were being exchanged in various parts of Europe in the early to mid-15th century, with the oldest Valentine in existence being in the British Museum.
By the 1850s, the greeting card had been transformed from a relatively expensive, handmade and hand-delivered gift to a popular and affordable means of personal communication, due largely to advances in printing, mechanization, and a reduction in postal rates with the introduction of the postage stamp. This was followed by new trends like Christmas cards, the first of which appeared in published form in London in 1843 when Sir Henry Cole hired artist John Calcott Horsley to design a holiday card that he could send to his friends and acquaintances. In the 1860s, companies like Marcus Ward & Co, Goodall and Charles Bennett began the mass production of greeting cards. They employed well known artists such as Kate Greenaway and Walter Crane as illustrators and card designers.
Technical developments like color lithography in 1930 propelled the manufactured greeting card industry forward. Humorous greeting cards, known as studio cards, became popular in the late 1940s and 1950s.
In the 1970s Recycled Paper Greetings, a small company needing to establish a competing identity against the large companies like Hallmark Cards, began publishing humorous "whimsical" card designs with the artist's name credited on the back. This was away from what was known as the standard look (sometimes called the Hallmark look.) By the 1980s there was a thriving market for what were now called "alternative" greeting cards, and the name stuck even though these "alternative" cards changed the look of the entire industry.
The largest recorded number of greeting cards sent to a single person went to Craig Shergold, a beneficiary/victim of chain letters and later chain emails.

First ever valentines card
This is possibly the oldest printed Valentine's card in the world. The delicate card has been pierced to produce a lace effect in the corners and is decorated with cupids, doves and flowers which were probably hand coloured after printing. It was published on 12th January 1797 by John Fairburn of 146, Minories, London. It includes a verse printed around the edge:

"Since on this ever Happy day,
All Nature's full of Love and Play
Yet harmless still if my design,
'Tis but to be your Valentine."

The card was sent by Catherine Mossday to Mr Brown of Dover Place, Kent Road, London. Inside a handwritten message reads intriguingly:
Mr Brown,
As I have repeatedly requested you to come I think you must have some reason for not complying with my request, but as I have something particular to say to you I could wish you make it all agreeable to come on Sunday next without fail and in doing you will oblige your well wisher.
Catherine Mossday. 

Today over 2 billion greeting cards are sold annually in the UK covering all manner of occasions from birthdays to Bar Mitzvah's, new home to new job, good luck to graduation and much more besides. It is estimated that the size of the UK market is around £1.7 billion per annum. People in the UK send more cards per capita than any other nation.
The tradition of sending good wishes goes back many centuries, probably beginning with the Chinese and Egyptians who exchanged goodwill messages at the start of a new year to ward off evil spirits. However, these tokens were not sent at other times of year and didn't bear any resemblance to cards we recognise today.
There is evidence of printed cards from the 14th Century in Germany where images were carved onto wood blocks, which then be covered in ink and used to print onto paper. These forms of cards were very expensive since they were handmade so were only accessible to well to do and wealthy individuals.
Sir Henry Cole has been credited with establishing the first printed cards that has developed into the mass-production industry we know today. Cole asked his friend and artist John Calcott Horsely to create a painting that could be printed in quantity for him to give to all his friends. Sir Henry Cole was an enterprising man with interests in a number of areas. He quickly recognised the opportunity this printed greeting card could offer, even selling off the remaining stock of cards from this first print run in central London.
The introduction of the Penny Post service combined with improvements to print technologies and paper production quickly increased the popularity, availability and affordability of printed Christmas cards and by the early 1900's the Royal Mail was dealing with an extra 11 million cards during the festive season.
Card manufacturers began to recognise other events and occasions for which cards could be given, moving from Christmas cards to Valentines cards. The oldest example of a printed Valentine card is held in the British Museum.
Today cards are sent to celebrate all kinds of events, such as a child's first day at school, birthdays, congratulations, good luck, well done and even to acknowledge divorce. There are a large number of major card publishers producing cards to suit all tastes and pockets, including irreverent funny cards, traditional cards and detailed handmade cards.
The record for the largest number of cards sent to a single person is held by Craig Shergold, who was the victim of an early Internet chain letter. Craig was diagnosed with terminal brain cancer at the age of 9 and his family sent a request via email asking people to send him greeting cards so he could get into the Guinness Book of World records. Unfortunately they didn't put a time limit on the request and, by the end of 1991, he had been sent 35 million cards. American businessman, John Kluge, heard about Craig's condition and offered to pay for a life saving operation for him. The operation was successful and Craig recovered from the cancer, but cards continued to be sent to the Shergold's address. The family was allocated their own postcode and even moved house to escape from the deluge of mail that continued to arrive. The chain letter continued to weave its way across the globe and despite the record being retired by the Guinness Book of Records, cards are still being received. To date, over 350 million at the last count. 

Postcards are another type of greeting cards, which are single-sided without the fold, can function in a manner somewhat similar to greeting cards. Postcards appeared fairly early on in the history of the postal service as a cheaper way of sending messages, especially those of a tourist nature.

Latest figures about greetings cards;
  • The total single card market value is fairly static at £1.38bn with the Everyday category worth £1.008bn, showing a small increase.
  • The total single card market volume shows a smal decrease from 997m to 952m.
  • The average retail price (ARP) of a card is now £1.44, up from £1.39.
  • Christmas single card value has dropped slightly to £148m - the ARP has risen slightly to £1.52.
  • Spring Seasons volume remains the same at 87m.
  • Mother’s Day remains the largest Spring Seasons card sending event, showing a rise to £57.2m in 2011 from £56.4m in 2010, the ARP is slightly down to £1.87 from £1.91.
  • And the UK public continues to show its romantic side with Valentine's Day sales also increasing to £41.5m in 2011, up from £40.7m in 2010, with the highest ARP of all the categories tracked at £1.95. 

Facts about greetings cards;
  • The greeting card industry is directly and indirectly responsible for the jobs of 100,000 people in the UK including: publishers; artists, photographers and image suppliers; verse and prose writers; printers; paper and board companies; envelope and cello wrap suppliers; specialist finishers; warehousing and distribution companies; trade fair organisers and retailers.
  • No other country has such a tradition of card sending or card display in the home - the sending and receiving of cards is an important part of our culture. 85% of all cards are bought by women!
  • The UK card industry is acknowledged to be ten years ahead of the rest of the world in terms of design.
  • There are approximately 800 publishers in the UK, most of which are small businesses with fewer than five employees. Out of the 460 members of the GCA over 350 are small/micro businesses.
  • It’s a creative industry with strong bases in London, Nottinghamshire and the North, especially Yorkshire and Lancashire, where it has replaced many of the heavy manufacturing industries as a major employers.
  • Charities estimate that £50m is raised for good causes through the sales of charity Christmas cards each year.
  • Greeting cards are stocked in more types of outlet than any other product – with one in six retailers stocking greeting cards.
  • The commercial Christmas card was invented in 1846 by Sir Henry Cole, the chief organiser of the Great Exhibition, pioneer of the penny post and founder of the V&A Museum.
  • One of Sir Henry’s first Christmas cards, sent to his Grandmother was recently sold at auction for  £22,500.
  • Greeting card making is also the number one craft hobby, according to Crafts Beautiful, the top consumer craft magazine, which receives more enquiries about greeting cards than any other subject.

Target audience for greeting cards;
According to the Greeting Card Association, women account for 80 percent of greeting card sales. This means that four out of five purchases is going to be by a woman. Therefore regardless of who the end recipient of the card is, your key customer target is female. When you are preparing cards for sale, remember that even male themed cards are likely to be purchased my a female.
When men buy cards they are likely to buy cards for special occasions and generally only for their partner and family. Therefore planning products and marketing campaigns to target male shoppers and help them with their purchase decision should help to generate sales.

Categories for greetings cards;
There are two categories of greeting cards. These are every day cards and seasonal cards. The top selling every day card is the birthday card which accounts for over half of the total sold. This is followed by wedding and anniversary, get well and sympathy, and friendship and encouragement cards. Top selling seasonal cards are Christmas and holidays cards. These account for more than 60 percent of all seasonal card sales. These are followed by Valentine’s Day, Mother’s Day, Father’s Day and Graduation cards. Again, these are average figures, therefore this might not reflect your range of handmade cards based on your customer requirements. This does, however, provide a good base to plan from when you are starting a handmade card business.

Different types of greeting cards;
  • Standard greeting cards
  • Photo greeting cards
  • Personalised greeting cards
  • Re-useable greeting cards
  • Risque greeting cards
  • Musical greeting cards
  • Electronic greeting cards
  • Pop up cards
Trends in greetings cards;
There is a significant trend towards combing high technology with greeting cards, for instance musical cards or greeting cards that contain LED lights. People are now familiar with e-cards and these are becoming increasingly accepted. However as more greeting cards feature high-tech wizardry, so there is a growing appreciation for handmade cards. The Greeting Card Association refers to a special combination of card, artwork, and gift. This is a useful niche for the handmade card maker. If you are making quality handmade cards with lots of special details then these will be highly appreciated. This type of card will continue to grow in popularity as a balance to high-tech cards.

Largest greetings card companies;

Hallmark Cards;

At Hallmark, we strive to make our products as relevant to as many people as possible. With one of the world's largest creative staffs – around 625 artists, designers, stylists, writers, editors, web designers, and photographers – and the best researchers in the industry, we provide a year-round greeting card selection of more than 18,000 designs.
For consumers who want Hallmark quality but with customizable options, offers the ability to create one-of-a-kind greeting cards with personal sentiments, photos and sound clips. Cards can be chosen online and personalized at any time. Hallmark professionally prints the cards, and can even address, stamp and mail them. There's also a free app for iPhone® called Hallmark Go Cards that makes the "perfect" card available anytime, from anywhere. also provides a variety of ecards to enable consumers to connect digitally. Some ecards feature popular music, TV and movie clips, and animation. Hallmark Card Studio software provides the tools to create greeting cards on a home printer.
In addition, people can compete to have their creations featured in Hallmark cards through a series of Your Greeting Card competitions at Contestants submit a cover image and message for a chance to be chosen as a winner and have their creation made into a real Hallmark card.;
Source is a business based in Guernsey and London which sells personalised greeting cards. The website was launched in July 2000, and in 2007 the company was responsible for 90 percent of the online greeting card market in the United Kingdom, with nearly six million cards shipped.
 According to founder Nick Jenkins, 'Moonpig' was his nickname at school, hence the name of the brand.
Customers who visit the website can choose from a large selection of basic card designs and enter their own text to personalise them. In addition to cards, the company offers customisable spoof magazine covers and invitations, where customers can upload their own photos for printing.
The original launch of in 2000 coincided with the collapse of the dot-com bubble which meant progress was difficult at first, but Jenkins raised further investment from private investors and venture capital, and the advent of broadband and digital cameras together with news spreading by word-of-mouth meant sales steadily increased, with the first profits being made in 2005. A television advertising campaign began in the United Kingdom in November 2006, and in February 2008 received more internet traffic than other flower and gift companies in the UK. By Summer 2009, the company had 2.57 million customers and its profit record was seen by The Times as "a typical curve for a successful start-up — a big, £1 million loss establishing it in its first year, negligible losses edging into negligible earnings over the next six years, and thereafter a seven-figure profit".
The company was initially based in Chelsea, but moved to Guernsey in 2006, maintaining a small office in London to deal with marketing and IT software. Along with the other Channel Islands, Guernsey has a VAT exemption on UK-bound goods costing less than £18. The business expanded into the Australian market in 2004, and in late 2009, the business expanded its offering to include a range of flowers and custom mug designs. In spring 2010, Moonpig launched in the United States.
In July 2011, Moonpig was bought by PhotoBox.

My preference;
In my opinion after looking for personalised cards for a friends birthday on, I found that I didn't like any of the cards, I thought that they were all very generic and very samey.
I didn't find one card which I thought was appropriate or good enough for my friend, I personally wouldn't buy a card which I didn't like therefore wouldn't use Moonpig, or Funkypigeon. I prefer homemade cards or screen printed cards, or just really well designed cards, rather than just mass produced ones. As well as homemade cards in shops, there are websites which sell them too, and think that's a good idea, but most of the website I ave found, are very children based for example,

This is a website I found which sell handmade cards, and gives people ideas to make their own handmade cards, I think that I will refer to this website a lot if I was making cards, it not only shows you what you can do, but also shows the techniques on how to make them.

Handmade cards;
I would rather but a card like this, which is simple, handmade, embossed and with a limited colour palette, it looks a lot more professional then any card which I found on moonpig and appeals to me more. Because 80%-85% of card buyers are women I think that this is a better card, as I think that moonpig cards are mostly bought by men, as it is the easier option, they can do it from home, and if its late can say its in the post, also moonpig offers gift packages.

Another thing I found when I was searching for card designs I like, are that there are a lot of bikes, they are screen printed onto a good quality stock, and it works really well, a lot of people are doing this at the moment. Something that makes the cards better designed is the limited colour palette, as on the personal card websites they are all very colourful and cluttered.

These cards have been lino cut and hand printed, I think this makes a difference to the quality of the cards and also the receiver of the card will know how unique the cards are. I also like the design of what is on the cards, they are aesthetically pleasing.

This card has been digitally printed, but I think it works so well because there are only three colours and stock used, the design is clean and clear. I also think that this could work well as a screen print.

The positive picture that this market report paints shows that despite rocky times on the high street, the increase in online print on demand and the rise of social media, the UK greeting card industry is healthy, vibrant and still a world leader. Greeting cards remain an ever important part of the UK social culture – people clearly still want to celebrate everyday and special occasions with their loved ones, and to mark many of life’s key ‘connecting’ moments with the sending of a card.

The reason why I wanted to research greetings cards, specifically homemade and screen printed cards is because I collect cards when I see ones I like, also I like giving and receiving cards, its a lovely thing to do. This quote explains why I have researched cards, "Greeting cards help fulfill an enduring need people have to connect with others. People say there's something special about finding "just the right card" – one they know will get a reaction from the person who receives it. They say giving cards is affirming. It feels good to send them, and it feels good to receive them." Source

To Do List

My to do list for the second year;

The skills and processes I want to try;
  • Book Binding
  • Web Design
  • Photoshop
  • Editorial Design
What I want to improve upon;
  • Screen Printing
  • Final Finish of Products
  • Illustrator Skills
  • InDesign Skills
  • Time Management
  • Multi-task
In terms of Graphic Design, what do I want to learn;
  • I want to learn how to organise my time better, in the first year I got better towards the end, but I want to learn to do it better in second year.
  • I want to try web design and try more editorial design, as they aren't my strong areas.
  • I am going to try and work harder with my context of practice and my essay, even though I did try, its my weakest point, and should use more time to improve it.
  • Teach myself to not procrastinate anymore.

Monday, 16 September 2013

Research Topic 3

Research Topic 3;
One of my topics for my summer brief is going to be Penguins, this is because I really like them, they are one of my favourite animals and I have previously done a project on them and I think there is a lot of research that can be done on Penguins, and it is an interest of mine. There is a lot of things that people don't know about Penguins, one of which being how many different kinds of Penguins there are.


General information about Penguins;
Penguins (order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) are a group of aquatic, flightless birds living almost exclusively in the Southern Hemisphere, especially in Antarctica. Highly adapted for life in the water, penguins have countershaded dark and white plumage, and their wings have evolved into flippers. Most penguins feed on krill, fish, squid and other forms of sealife caught while swimming underwater. They spend about half of their lives on land and half in the oceans.
Although all penguin species are native to the Southern Hemisphere, they are not found only in cold climates, such as Antarctica. In fact, only a few species of penguin live so far south. Several species are found in the temperate zone, and one species, the Galápagos Penguin, lives near the equator.
The largest living species is the Emperor Penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri): on average adults are about 1.1 m (3 ft 7 in) tall and weigh 35 kg (75 lb) or more. The smallest penguin species is the Little Blue Penguin (Eudyptula minor), also known as the Fairy Penguin, which stands around 40 cm tall (16 in) and weighs 1 kg (2.2 lb). Among extant penguins, larger penguins inhabit colder regions, while smaller penguins are generally found in temperate or even tropical climates (see also Bergmann's Rule). Some prehistoric species attained enormous sizes, becoming as tall or as heavy as an adult human. These were not restricted to Antarctic regions; on the contrary, subantarctic regions harboured high diversity, and at least one giant penguin occurred in a region not quite 2,000 km south of the equator 35 mya, in a climate decidedly warmer than today.

Different species of Penguins;
Not a lot of people know how many species of Penguins there are, and there has been a lot of debate about how many there are, I have found that there are 18 different species of Penguins and 6 different genus's of Penguins. Also all of the Penguins have common names and scientific names, and all belong to a genus.

  • African (Spheniscus demersus)
  • Galapagos (Spheniscus Mendiculus)
  • Humboldt (Spheniscus humboldti)
  • Magellanic (Spheniscus magellanicus)
  • Adelie (Pygoscelis adeliae)
  • Chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica)
  • Gentoo (Pygoscelis papua)
  • Yellow-eyed (Megadyptes antipodes)
  • Little (Eudyptula minor)
  • White Flippered (Eudyptula albosignata)
  • Erect-crested (Eudyptes sclarteri)
  • Fiordland (Eudyptes pachyrhychus)
  • Macaroni (Eudyptes chrysolophus)
  • Rockhopper (Eudyptes chrysocome)
  • Snares (Eudyptes robustus)
  • Royal (Eudyptes schlengeli)
  • Emperor (Aptenodytes forsteri)
  • King (Aptenodytes patagonicus)
The problems most people have with not knowing how many Penguin species there are in the world is because they look very similar to people who don't know a lot about them, although they all have specific attributes about them that make them different from others. I found a lot of information from, although it shows that there are 16 different species of penguins whereas there are actually 18, so had to find a different source for the other two penguins.

Scientific name: Pygoscelis adeliae (Adelie)
Identification: Source
A medium-sized penguin recognised by its white eye-ring. Feathers on the back of the head are slightly elongated and can be raised to form a small crest. Light-coloured individuals occur rarely in some colonies. Immature birds up to 14 months of age differ from adults in having a white rather than black chin and they lack the white ring around their eyes.

Size: 5.4 kg (m), 4.7 kg (f)
Nest type: in colonies in the open, use stones to line nest
Favourite food: krill

No penguin, indeed no other bird, breeds further south than Adelie Penguins. Adelie Penguins show a number of specialised adaptations to the cold often encountered by this species that restrict heat loss. 

Breeds from October to February on shores around the Antarctic continent, South Shetland, South Orkney, South Sandwich, and Bouvetøya Islands. At sea Adelie Penguins are usually found from the edge of the shelf-ice to the northern extent of the pack-ice.

Scientific name: Spheniscus demersus (African)
Identification: Source
The only penguin occurring regularly in southern Africa. African Penguins, like Humboldt Penguins, differ from Magellanic Penguins in that they lack a second dark breast band (although some African Penguins do have an additional breast band). The area of naked skin reaches all around the eye and is more extensive than that in Humboldt Penguins. Immature African Penguins have a grey face and lack the pied pattern of adults. Adult plumage occurs after 14 months.

Size: 3.3 kg (m), 3.0 kg (f)
Nest type: burrow or under bushes/rocks
Favourite food: small fish

This is the only penguin breeding in Africa and was probably the first penguin encountered by Europeans. Numbers declined significantly during the Twentieth Century and their future has been jeopardized recently by major oil spills.

As the name suggests, the African Penguin is endemic to southern Africa with the largest concentrations along the Benguela Current, which brings nutrient-rich water to the west coast of South Africa and Namibia.

Scientific name: Pygoscelis antarctica (Chinstrap)
Identification: Source
Chinstrap Penguins are medium-sized penguins, easily recognised by their white face and the fine black line across the cheeks. The demarcation between the black and white lies above the eye, isolating the dark eye in the white plumage. The bill is black. In contrast to most other penguins, juvenile Chinstraps closely resemble their parents. Until their first moult, juveniles can be recognised by dark spotting around the eyes and a slightly shorter bill.

Size: 5.0 kg (m), 4.8 kg (f)
Nest type: in colonies in the open
Favourite food: krill

This delicately coloured bird is arguably the most beautiful of penguins. In contrast to other adult penguins, apart from Royal Penguins, this species has a white face. This is separated from the white belly by a thin dark line running under the lower part of the chin - therefore the name.

Intermediate between the Adelie in the south and the Gentoo Penguin in the north. Breeding colonies are almost exclusively on the Scotia Arc: that is, around the Antarctic Peninsula on South Georgia, South Orkney, South Shetland, and South Sandwich Islands (vast numbers on the latter). Small numbers also breed on Bouvetøya, Peter First, Heard and Balleny Islands.

Scientific name: Aptenodytes forsteri (Emperor)

Identification: Source
The Emperor Penguin is bigger than any other living penguin, standing up to 1.1 m tall. It is distinguished from the smaller King Penguin by its size, more robust stature, and a broad pale yellow connection between the orange-yellow ear patches and the pale yellow upper breast. Immature birds resemble adults but are smaller and have a white rather than black chin. Ear patches are whitish, becoming increasingly yellow with age.

Size: 36.7 kg (m), 28.4kg (f)
Nest type: breed on sea ice in winter, egg carried on feet
Favourite food: fish and squid

The Emperor Penguin is a bird of extremes in just about every way. It breeds during the Antarctic winter and exhibits many adaptations to the extreme cold that these birds experience when breeding.

Breeds during the Antarctic winter in about 30 colonies around the southern parts of the Antarctic continent, usually on fast ice. Probably depends a lot upon polynias – areas of open water surrounded by sea ice – during winter.

Scientific name: Eudyptes sclateri (Erect-crested)
Identification: Source
Similar to other crested penguins, in particular Snares and Fiordland Penguins. When dry on land Erect-crested Penguin can be identified by the upright yellow feather plumes of their crests. Erect-crested Penguins have a distinct gular pouch, a more parallel bill, and the yellow supercilium attaches higher on the bill than in Snares and Fiordland Penguins. Identification at sea is extremely difficult because feather plumes droop down when wet. Immatures have a pale yellow supercilium without the long plumes and a mottled grey throat. They can be distinguished from other crested penguins by the lower supercilium, size and gular pouch.

Size: 5.2 kg (m), 5.1 kg (f)
Nest type: in colonies in the open; nest on rocks with little to no nesting material to line nests
Favourite food: krill and squid

A little-known rather bizarre bird with a limited breeding distribution in a very isolated part the world.

In an arc that characterizes the distribution of crested penguins, from the Antarctic Peninsula and South America through the sub-Antarctic islands in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, Erect-crested Penguins form the terminal species in the east. They are now restricted to the Bounty and Antipodes Islands, with a few isolated pairs still breeding on the Auckland Islands. All these sites are south of the subtropical convergence but well north of the polar front. Until recently there were also some birds breeding on Campbell Island, but they seem to have disappeared from there now. Abundant sub-fossil material from the Chatham Islands has also been attributed to this species.

Scientific name: Eudyptes pachyrhynchus (Fiordland)

Identification: Source
Similar to Snares Penguin, with a thick yellow stripe running above the eye and ending in a dropping plume. Distinguished from Snares Penguin by its larger size, a series of white streaks on the cheeks and the lack of a fleshy margin at the base of the bill. Immature birds have a mottled white chin, thinner dull yellow supercilium and probably cannot be safely distinguished from Snares Penguin.

Size: 4.1 kg (m), 3.7 kg (f)
Nest type: in forest under vegetation or rocks; in caves
Favourite food: fish and squid

The Fiordland Penguin lives in the temperate rainforest of the southwest coast of the South Island and Stewart Island, New Zealand, where it is endemic.

Endemic to New Zealand. Breeds in the cold rainforest of the southwest coast of the South Island down to Stewart Island.

Scientific name: Spheniscus mendiculus (Galapagos)

Identification: Source
They are the smallest of the Spheniscus penguins. Distinguished by their relatively large bill and narrow white line around the face.

Size: 2.1 kg (m), 1.7 kg (f)
Nest type: burrow or crevices in lava
Favourite food: small fish

The northernmost of all penguins, Galapagos Penguins breed right on the equator. Populations fluctuate heavily under the influence of El Niño to a degree that the future survival of the species is endangered.

Endemic to the Galapagos Islands where it breeds on Isabela, Fernandina and possibly Bartholomew. Distribution seems to be correlated with the Cromwell Current, which provides cold nutrient-rich surface water.

Scientific name: Pygoscelis papua (Gentoo)

Identification: Source
Gentoo Penguins are characterised by a white patch around and behind the eye that joins on the crown. The orange-red lower mandible is also a distinct feature. Two subspecies are recognised: a larger form in the sub-Antarctic and a smaller, but otherwise similar subspecies on the Antarctic Peninsula. Juveniles are very similar to adults, but the white eye-patch is not connected to their white eye-rings until they moult at an age of 14 months.

Size: 5.6 kg (m), 5.1 kg (f)
Nest type: in colonies in the open
Favourite food: krill and fish

This is the most northern penguin of this genus and, in many other respects, the odd one out. In contrast to Chinstrap and Adelie Penguins, some Gentoo Penguins can be found around their breeding colonies all year round and they forage much closer inshore than the other two Pygoscelis species.

Mainly in the sub-Antarctic, but extending to the Antarctic Peninsula. Breeds on Staten, Falkland, South Georgia, South Sandwich, South Orkney, South Shetland, the Antarctic Peninsula, Marion, Prince Edward, Crozet, Kerguelen, Heard, and Macquarie Islands. There is some evidence that the size of colonies depend on the local width of the continental shelf, i.e. the available inshore foraging area.

Scientific name: Spheniscus humboldti (Humboldt)

Identification: Source
Similar to Magellanic Penguins, but lacks the second dark breast band and has a wider white band around the head. Humboldt Penguins also have more extensive areas of bare skin than Magellanic Penguins, including a pink fleshy patch at the base of the lower mandible. Immature birds are very similar to those of Magellanic Penguins but are generally darker on the head.

Size: 4.9 kg (m), 4.5 kg (f)
Nest type: burrow or cave
Favourite food: small fish

Endemic to the cold nutrient-rich waters of the Peru Current, the Humboldt Penguin breeds in a hot Mediterranean to desert climate. Populations fluctuate under the influence of El Niño events, which can cause significant breeding failure and adult starvation.

Endemic to the Humboldt Current, breeding range extending from 5° S in Peru to 37°S in Chile, with isolated colonies existing as far as 42°S near Puerto Montt.

Scientific name: Aptenodytes patagonicus (King)

Identification: Source
The second-largest penguin species, similar in appearance to Emperor Penguin, but their ranges do not usually overlap. Cheeks are dark orange. The belly is white but the back is paler than other penguins, more of a grey than black. Immatures are similar to adults, but with duller facial plumage. Ear patches are pale yellow rather than orange and the throat is grey-white. Reaches adult plumage after two years.

Size: 16.0 kg (m), 14.3 kg (f)
Nest type: in colonies in the open, have territories but no nest
Favourite food: fish, some squid

No other bird has a longer breeding cycle than King Penguins. They take 14 to 16 months to fledge a single chick. During the winter, chicks may be left to fast for from one to five months (May to September/October). Adults can rear a maximum of only two chicks every three years.

Restricted to the sub-Antarctic belt, well north of Emperor Penguins. Breeding colonies are found on Falkland (re-colonised after extermination), South Georgia, Marion, Prince Edward, Crozet (over half of the world’s population), Kerguelen, Heard (re-colonised after extermination), and Macquarie Islands. At sea, King Penguins are usually found in ice-free waters. Telemetry studies have shown that they forage particularly along the polar front.

Scientific name: Eudyptula minor (Little)

Identification: Source
The Little Penguin closely resembles juveniles of the genus Spheniscus, but their ranges do not overlap. Upper parts are pale blue to a dark grey-blue depending upon age, season and subspecies. The transition from the dark upper parts to the white plumage of the lower body is not as well defined as in other penguins, going through shades of grey and brown, especially in the face.

Size: 1.2 kg (m), 1.0 kg (f)
Nest type: burrow, cave or under bushes
Favourite food: small fish

The world’s smallest penguin (also known as Little Blue, Blue and Fairy Penguin).

Little Penguins are widely distributed in Australia (from Western Australia along the southern coast of Australia up to New South Wales) and in New Zealand (from Northland to Stewart Island and the Chatham Islands). The White-flippered Penguin (E. m. albosignata) is an endangered subspecies, restricted to Banks Peninsula and Motonau Island (South Island, New Zealand) that has often been treated as a full species. Geographic variation of size, extent of white on the tail and flipper, and colour tone of the back is considerable. Six subspecies have been described: novaehollandia in Australia, iredaei in northern New Zealand, variabilis from Cook Strait, New Zealand, albosignata on Banks Peninsula, minor in the lower part of the South Island, New Zealand, and chathamensis from the Chatham Islands.

Scientific name: Eudyptes chrysolophus (Macaroni)

Identification: Source
In contrast to the other crested Penguins, this species has orange, not yellow, feather plumes. They originate from a supercilium that meets at the front, i.e. higher up the head than in other species. Macaroni Penguins are also slightly larger than the other crested penguins. Most Macaroni Penguins breeding on Macquarie Island (south of Australia) have a white face and are referred to as Royal Penguins: they are sometimes given full species status (Eudyptes schlegeli), although the biological basis for doing so is very doubtful. Immatures are similar to adults but lack the long feather crest. Instead only a short orange-yellow supercilium is present.

Size: 5.2 kg (m), 5.3kg (f)
Nest type: in colonies in the open
Favourite food: krill

This is probably the most abundant of all penguins in terms of total numbers. Brood reduction is taken to an extreme by this species. The Royal Penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus schlegeli), a white-faced variant, is treated as a subspecies of Macaroni Penguin here, but others accord the Royal penguin full species status.

The distribution of Macaroni Penguin extends from the sub-Antarctic to the Antarctic Peninsula, but overall they are found further south than the rest of the crested penguins. The range overlaps with that of the southern form of the Rockhopper Penguin. Breeding colonies are found on the Antarctic Peninsula, islands around Cape Horn, Falklands, South Georgia, South Sandwich, South Orkney, South Shetland, Bouvetøya, Prince Edward, Marion, Crozet, Kerguelen, Heard Island and Macquarie Island.

Scientific name: Spheniscus magellanicus (Magellanic)

Identification: Source
It is the only Spheniscus penguin found over most of its range, but overlaps the distribution of Humboldt Penguins around Puerto Montt, Chile. Humboldt Penguins lack the second dark breast band found in Magellanic Penguin and have more extensive areas of bare facial skin. However, as both of these characters are subject to individual variation and hybrids do occur, not every bird might be identifiable. Some immature birds undergo partial head moult during winter and gain the pied head pattern of adults.

Size: 4.9 kg (m), 4.6 kg (f)
Nest type: burrow or under bushes
Favourite food: small fish

Similar to African Penguin (to which it is very closely related), but breeding on the opposite side of the Atlantic. It is also the only migratory, offshore-foraging species in this genus.

Breeds around the southern tip of South America from 40°S in Argentina to 37°S in Chile, as well as on the Falkland Islands. The largest colonies are found on the Atlantic side of South America.

Scientific name: Eudyptes chrysocome (Rockhopper)

Identification: Source
Rockhoppers are distinguished from other crested penguins by their smaller size and by having only a thin yellow superscilium. The feather plumes are yellow, not orange as in Macaroni Penguin, and thinner than in the remaining Eudyptes species. The red eye is distinctive. Southern Rockhopper Penguins differ from their Northern counterparts in having a narrower supercilium and shorter plumes, which reach just over the black throat. Their vocalisations are also different. The Southern Rockhopper actually comprises two subspecies that have been described and can be identified in the field: the nominate form from South America and the Falkland Islands and the eastern subspecies filholi from the New Zealand sub-Antarctic islands. The eastern form mainly differs from the nominate subspecies in having a pink line of fleshy skin along the lower mandible which is black in the nominate subspecies. Immature birds have only a narrow supercilium and a pale mottled grey chin. Identification of juveniles is difficult. Shape of the supercilium, bill shape, body size and underwing pattern can aid identification. Separation of juvenile Southern and Northern Rockhopper Penguins in the field is probably impossible.

Size: 2.5 kg (m), 2.4 kg (f)
Nest type: in colonies in the open; sometimes in association with other species
Favourite food: krill, fish and squid

Breeding in sometimes-large colonies throughout the sub-Antarctic. Smaller than its congeners, but no less aggressive. There is some evidence that the Northern Rockhopper or Moseley’s Penguin is deserving of separate species status. Whatever, the Northern Rockhopper and Southern Rockhopper are clearly closely related and much of what applies to one probably holds for the other, but actual data are still scarce.

The northern form of the Rockhopper Penguin breeds in cool temperate climates, generally north of the subtropical convergence, with breeding occurring on Tristan da Cunha and Gough Island in the Atlantic Ocean and St. Paul and Amsterdam Islands in the Indian Ocean. The breeding season starts three months earlier (July) than in the southern form. The latter is restricted to the northern sub-Antarctic and has a circumpolar distribution. Breeding colonies are around the Cape Horn area, Falklands, Prince Edward, Marion, Crozet, Kerguelen, Heard, Macquarie, Campbell, Auckland and Antipodes Islands. Campbell Island used to be the eastern stronghold of the species, but the population there has plummeted recently.
Scientific name: Eudyptes robustus (Snares)

Identification: Source
Similar to Fiordland Penguins (see above for differences). Differs from Erect-crested Penguins in having drooping feather plumes on the crest, the yellow facial stripe reaches further up the bill, and they have a more conical bill. The underwing pattern is highly variable and of little use for identification in the field.

Size: 3.3 kg (m), 2.8 kg (f)
Nest type: in colonies in the open or under forest canopy
Favourite food: krill, squid and fish

Similar in many respects to Fiordland Penguin but endemic to the Snares Islands, which are about 100 km south of the nearest Fiordland Penguin breeding sites. With its breeding range confined to the just over 300 ha of the Snares group, it has the most restricted distribution of all penguins.

Endemic to the Snares Islands south of New Zealand. Little is known about the non-breeding distribution.

Scientific name: Megadyptes antipodes (Yellow-eyed)

Identification: Source
Adults are unmistakable with their yellow eyes and yellow eye-stripes that join on the back of the head. Moulting birds and birds at sea can be confused with crested penguins. Immature birds are similar to adults but have a pale yellow chin and a less vivid yellow eye-stripe.

Size: 5.7 kg (m), 5.4kg (f)
Nest type: under dense vegetation
Favourite food: fish and squid

The Yellow-eyed Penguin is often referred to as the rarest penguin in the world, although, unfortunately, there are others that could lay claim to that crown too: especially the Galapagos and Fiordland Penguins.

Endemic to New Zealand, Yellow-eyed Penguins breed on the east and south coast of the South Island, on and around Stewart Island, the Auckland Islands, and Campbell Islands.

Scientific name: Eudyptula albosignata (White Flippered)  

Identification: Source

This penguins has an overall blue appearence, it is very similar to the little penguin. It is distinguished with a broad white trailing and leading edges of the flipper, this is where it gets the name White-flippered.

Size: 1.6 kg (m), 1.4kg (f)
Nest type: burrow, cave or under bushes
Favourite food: small fish

White-flippered penguins previously were classified as a subspecies of the little penguin, and it now established as its own species, although it is now endangered.

Endemic to Canterbury, New Zealand. They breed only on banks of Peninsula and Motunau Island.

Scientific name: Eudyptes schlengeli (Royal)

Identification: Source

Royal penguins have a white front, chin and face and have a black back. Their beaks are orange, and they have a yellow-orange crest on their head.

Size: 4.9 kg (m), 4.7kg (f)
Nest type: in colonies in the open
Favourite food: krill and fish

The Royal penguin can swim up to 30km/hr which is 20mph. It is also confused for a Macaroni penguin, and is one of the penguins which some people mistake for a similar species, but it is actually its own species.

The are found in waters surrounding Antarctica, during breeding season they come ashore to breed on Macquarie Island.

Primary Research;
I went to Harewood house, as it is the closest place to me where there are Penguins, and took some pictures, and these Penguins are Humboldt Penguins, these are the most common Penguins found in England in zoos and Sealife centers.

Penguins in popular culture;
Penguins are popular around the world, primarily for their unusually upright, waddling gait and (compared to other birds) lack of fear of humans. Their striking black-and-white plumage is often likened to a white tie suit. Mistakenly, some artists and writers have penguins based at the North Pole. This is incorrect, as there are almost no wild penguins in the Northern Hemisphere, except the small group on the northernmost of the Galápagos. The cartoon series Chilly Willy helped perpetuate this myth, as the title penguin would interact with northern-hemisphere species such as polar bears and walruses.
Penguins have been the subject of many books and films such as Happy Feet, Surf's Up and The Penguins of Madagascar, all CGI films; March of the Penguins, a documentary based on the migration process of the Emperor Penguin; and a parody titled Farce of the Penguins. Mr. Popper's Penguins is a children's book written by Richard & Florence Atwater; it was named a Newbery Honor Book in 1939. Penguins have also found their way into a number of cartoons and television dramas; perhaps the most notable of these is Pingu, created by Silvio Mazzola in 1986 and covering more than 100 short episodes. Entertainment Weekly put it on its end-of-the-decade, "best-of" list, saying, "Whether they were walking (March of the Penguins), dancing (Happy Feet), or hanging ten (Surf's Up), these oddly adorable birds took flight at the box office all decade long."
Several pro, minor, college and high school sport teams have named themselves after the species, with the Pittsburgh Penguins team in the National Hockey League and the Youngstown State Penguins being the most recognizable.
The tendency of penguins to form large groups feeds the stereotype that they all look exactly alike, a popular notion exploited by cartoonists such as Gary Larson.
Penguins featured regularly in the cartoons of UK cartoonist Steve Bell in his strip in The Guardian Newspaper, particularly during and following the Falklands War, and the well-known Opus the Penguin from the cartoons of Berkeley Breathed, is also described as hailing from the Falklands. Opus was a comical, "existentialist" penguin character in the cartoons Bloom County, Outland and Opus. He was also the star in the Christmas show A Wish for Wings That Work.
In the mid-2000s, penguins became one of the most publicized species of animals that form lasting homosexual couples. A children's book, And Tango Makes Three, was written about one such penguin family in the New York Zoo.

Packaging such as juice boxes that look like a penguin is really interesting, the target audience is for children, this is clear because of how playful the packaging is, and it is very successful.
I found this and it reminded me of penguins, due to the use of colours and shapes, I really like this design because of how simple it is, it doesn't have to suggest that it is to do with Penguins using typography, purely having suggestive shapes and colours allow the imagination to work.

Penguin books are very famous now, and they inspire a lot of people in the way that they are so effective and they are very established as a brand.

This is a creative advertisement for Penguin Books, I think that the way that it has been produced is to a high quality, parallel to the company, but it is also playful. Using books to create effect is a creative way of playing with the idea of Penguin books and Penguins inside book and make out of the pages in books. I just think that this is a good advert which is aesthetically pleasing and effective in the way that it promotes Penguin Books.

The simple way that this shows an Adelie Penguin works really well, it is clear what the illustration is, and helps people to identify what species of Penguin it is by using a limited colour palette.
This is an Iphone wallpaper, it is a creative melted version of a Penguin which I really like and think works really well as a wallpaper, it is targeted at many people, especially Iphone users, also it resembles the most well known Penguin, which is the Emperor Penguin.

My designs;
I decided that I would help people to easily be able to tell penguins apart, and find out what each are called with some of the basic information about them, I found that this was a problem that a lot of people had, therefore created characters for each of the species of penguins on illustrator, showing the key feature on each of them, so that people can tell them apart.

Examples of my penguin designs;
Little Penguin

African Prnguin

Royal Penguin
After doing this I decided to make a penguin guide, something accessible and small so that you can carry it around, but also make it readable and clear.

Penguin guide
I made a guide which chowed the name of the penguins, the scientific names of each of the penguins, how tall they are, and where they live. I also provided the illustrations of all of the penguins, showing the key attributes to identify each of them, this is so that anyone can tell all of the penguins apart, and learn more about the species of penguins.

Height guide
I produced a height guide so make it more clear about the differences between the heights of each penguins, this is one of the key features of establishing the differences between each of the penguins.

Penguin display font
I decided to create a display font using penguins in different shapes to create letter, I experimented with many different versions for each letter, but found that this worked the best, so made words such as 'Penguin Guide' and "Height Chart' to go on the front of each of them. I also created 'Penguin Dilema' for the front of my information pack, as I decided to make a simple pack to help people identify the Penguins.

These are the Penguin Dilema kits, with the type screen printed on the front of all of the boxes, and there are 4 different coloured boxes to choose from. Each box includes a Penguin chocolate, 'Say No To Average Joe' Penguin stamp, Height Chart and Penguin Guide. As I have already produced this design, I think that taking this research further would be a mistake as I think I have done enough design on Penguins, I think that it would be better for me to move forward with a different topic to research.